来源:Gavin (USA) Issue 2089 25 January 1996

作者:Keith Zimmerman

摘录:Steven Holiday

翻译:

*感谢Everywhere Is Fan Club使此次摘录成功


随着仅有的三次唱片发行:1988年《水印》、1991年《牧羊月》,以及新近发行的《树的回忆》,(甚至不把近期重新发行的《凯尔特人》电视原声音乐计算在内),ENYA已经构筑了一位令人瞩目的爱尔兰人,音乐跨越了整个欧洲,随后是亚洲和美洲,在15个国家的多白金销量不断回响。  

12月份发行了《树的回忆》之后,圣诞假期中三百万张飓风般的销售使她全球唱片总销量超过了两千万张。 

对于这样一位热门畅销歌手,ENYA一直极为低调,宁可用音乐来回应。除了一张新专辑制作完成,ENYA极少同意接受采访和安排访谈时间。 

不过,随着Gavin杂志为ENYA前两张畅销专辑所写的封面文章,每次ENYA专辑发行已经成为了该杂志的传统。在他们最近来洛杉机作宣传期间,ENYA身边的职员临时与我们联系了。在机场汽车租用柜台前一阵手忙脚乱后,我匆匆忙忙地到达目的地—已经比原定的采访时间晚了30分钟。极有魅力的ENYA身穿一件绿色天鹅绒长裙,面带微笑,并不介意我迟到的道歉。以下是此次访谈的精华部分。 


KZ 

通过前三张唱片,你已经创立了一种无人能模仿的音乐。这个三人合作关系是如何支撑着你、Nicky Ryan(制作人兼音响工程师)、Roma Ryan(词作者)? 


ENYA 

那是绝对美妙的。现在仍然是我们三个人。没有其他人的介入让我们感到很愉快。有一种引起人们注意的情况是当人们获得成功时,通常变化就会出现了。现在我们的变化是我们拥有了自己的录音室。实际上,在我们制作《牧羊月》的时候就已经有了一个录音室了,但它小多了,而且我们不得不到伦敦去完成那张专辑。我那时发现很困难。在爱尔兰时我们三人一起工作,非常紧密和私人化。接着在伦敦的录音室里有着如此众多让我分心的东西。这让我花了一段时间去适应。不过这次我们在都柏林郊外有了自己的录音室-完全是为我们设计的-在这个地方我们可以毫无分心地进行专辑创作。这个地方非常宁静。录音室的楼上是个长形房间,在房间首尾两端有两扇大拱型窗,房中的钢琴面朝着Wicklow山脉。 


KZ 

《牧羊月》和这张新专辑相隔了4年? 


ENYA 

从1991年下半年开始,当时我依旧在为《牧羊月》进行大量推广工作。然后我们参与了由Ron Howard导演的Far and Away的电影原声音乐制作。经过许多地方的一次性旅行后,象纽约和蒙特卡罗,我们决定(1992年)结束专辑的推广工作。我花了一年时间放松,接着用了两年时间制作《树的回忆》。你的歌曲触发了他们自有的生命。除了CD外,他们进入了版权、电影原声音乐和商业广告活动的迷宫中。我感到音乐比我重要。 


KZ 

比你的形象重要吗? 


ENYA 

有些艺术家喜欢自身比音乐重要。但是我选择不要把自己联系进去。到今天为止,如果我走进一家旅馆的大厅,人们认不出我。人们知道这种音乐。“那是ENYA。”这对我和我的音乐都有好处。我能够用很慢的步速取得成功。我接受的采访并不多。没有无休止的在公众场合露面。我让音乐取代这一切。 


KZ 

你的音乐录制生涯是从为电影配乐开始的。用全新的音乐为一部大片配乐将带给你什么? 


ENYA 

配乐要花很长的时间。迄今为止,我们所参与制作的仅仅是一段主题音乐或一首主题歌。当在制作新专辑时,任何要求我们配乐的事情都被婉言谢绝。我无法兼顾两者。因此,这真的是个时间因素。我仍然喜欢制作电影音乐,但配乐是件难事。很难与导演们一起工作。你编写了一段旋律,而他们需要了10秒的片断。我可以为一部影片配乐的唯一出路是导演能真正理解音乐。但那是很困难的,因为这是他的电影,而他迫切需要用音乐来提升整部影片。那是从他的角度看的。他并不象我那样看待音乐的重要性 。 


Nicky Ryan在录音过程中把Phil Spector作为一个主要影响。 Phil Spector和Beach Boys。从他们那儿他获得了多重嗓音(multi-vocal)的想法。他喜欢大型的嗓音歌唱,但是他好奇地想知道由一个人完成所有的嗓音演唱会发展成什么样子。他知道我对和声有强烈爱好。我受到的音乐影响与Nicky非常不同,不过录音室里的黄金法则是把所有的都试一遍,不管哪种想法听起来有多怪。有段时期你无法肯定要做些什么,而那就是你需要时间离开它,然后以后在返回。有些时候,音乐编排可能会美妙和聪明,但却失去了旋律一开始时的感情。你必须重头来过而不去管它已经录制的东西。如果有一丝犹豫的话就完了。 


KZ 

那会令人失望的。  


ENYA 

但当你那样工作的话,会建立起激动的元素。我喜欢不去知道最终的结果。我完成于音乐的旅程中,而不去想会把我引向哪里。当Roma听了音乐旋律后,她同样能听出我的音乐体验。接着她能把歌词与旋律的感情联系起来。Roma建议了专辑的标题《树的回忆》。这个标题给了我灵感,两星期后我写出了标题音乐。通常情况下,大多数的音乐旋律首先是标题曲和歌词。《树的回忆》是基于爱尔兰神话故事,讲述了Druids,这类神话人物把树木视作神圣。 


KZ 

歌词借用了许多环境形象。为了灵感,Roma四处旅行吗? 


ENYA 

她阅读的书籍很多,而且写了优美的诗歌。从某种意义上说,她在书中漫游。 


KZ 

在这张专辑中,你演奏了所有的乐器,而且没有客串的独奏者或使用传统歌曲。 


ENYA 

在这张专辑中,我演奏了轻型的打击乐器和一些弦乐。我演奏了少许大提琴和小提琴。我不是一个小提琴独奏家,但我能演奏基本的弦乐。这为音乐重叠做了很好的工作。钢琴依旧是主要的乐器。在每首歌中都用到了,尽管在混音中听起来不明显。Nicky非常喜欢层叠合成器音乐,并创造出根本不存在的新声音。 在 ‘Pax Deorum’中的大而沉闷的声音是一个例子- 这是混音合成,不是一种声音。它可能听上去象一件乐器,但它是弦乐与合成器的综合。有时候,嗓音的大型混合声音充当了弦乐部分。人们往往想那些是弦乐,但是我们把嗓音当作乐器一样使用。 


KZ 

那要求无差错制作。 


ENYA 

甚至象 ‘Anywhere is’这首歌,是没有节拍器的(click track)。我一旦写一段音乐旋律,都是没有节拍的。我发现节拍器把大量的感情从歌曲中撤走了。演奏(演唱)时不用节拍在旋律中给了你大量的情感。尽管我打算重叠我的嗓音并演奏乐器,我依然能那样,因为我知道拍子。我完全能重叠,用不着嘀嗒嘀嗒的节拍。  


KZ 

你的第一首单曲Anywhere is,几乎未作记录(make the record)。发生了什么事? 


ENYA 

它起始于一个断奏,在开头音乐中有行军的感觉。当我们在录音室中工作时,我们从不想哪一首歌曲比其它歌曲更具商业性。它依然要比电台里的其它音乐与众不同。 ‘Orinoco Flow’依然是不同的。我们没有觉察到潜在的单曲,因此一年半之后我们通知了Rob Dickins(Warner Bros. 英国的主席)。我们感到即将完成专辑的制作,并想听听他的意见。由于全球发行的责任,我们必须设置一个日期。Rob立即看到了Anywhere is作为一首单曲的潜力。我制作了这段音乐旋律,然后我们完工了。 


KZ 

Anywhere is 是你完成的最后一首歌曲吗? 


ENYA 

我当时和Roma坐在一起,对她说,“这真奇怪。Orinoco Flow是《水印》中最后制作完工的歌曲。Caribbean Blue是《牧羊月》中最后完成的歌曲。有这样一个阶段:在歌词和旋律方面都达到了上升音乐速度的时候。Anywhere is完成后,一切就结束了。恰巧三次都这样。” 


KZ 

你等待着,直到最终出现的主打单曲。  


ENYA  

这不象我们有30首歌曲挑选,那么我们就挑第10首。我在录音室中度过数周,仅仅写一首音乐。 


KZ 

关于Pax Deorum和Athair Ar Neamh, 在构筑一种(音乐)情绪时拉丁语和盖尔语的使用上有什么内在联系? 


ENYA 

Roma和我知道我不打算用英语演唱Athair Ar Neamh。尽管盖尔语是我的母语,我不试图把它强加于这张专辑。我喜欢顺其自然,如同在那首歌中一样。有一首用西班牙语演唱的歌曲La Sondora。Roma和我回顾这首歌时,认为它是一段非常不同的旋律。我们喜欢在歌曲中用拉丁语,象Pax Deorum,因为拉丁语有非常古典的感觉。盖尔语非常柔和,而且我知道英语根本就不适合这首歌。 


KZ 

Roma的盖尔语流利吗? 


ENYA 

不,她从小生长在北爱尔兰的贝尔法斯特。在她用英语写完歌词后,我和她一起把歌词改编成盖尔语,因为通过直接翻译会遗失歌词中的情感。就La Sondora,Roma建议用西班牙语。她告诉我历史上爱尔兰和西班牙有联系,西班牙无敌舰队等等。当时大量西班牙人在爱尔兰西部定居,因此爱尔兰有许多人的头发是黑色的。 

接着,Roma在神话故事中找到了西班牙和爱尔兰的联系。第一个Druid人,Amergin,来自古西班牙海岸。在爱尔兰海岸登陆后,他背诵了一首诗。她以La Sondora的歌词为基础,在他的诗上翻译了“梦想者”(The Dreamer)。“我是清秋/我是寒冬/我是回声。” 


KZ 

你试验了在外面录制Hope has a place。 


ENYA 

这是另外一段起初就写的歌词。Roma当时正在从爱尔兰北部返回贝尔法斯特的回家路上。她读到了有关在Down郡Mouorne山脉中被称为“寂静山谷”(Silent Valley)的美丽地方。她在那儿写了这首歌的歌词。 “Hope has a place in the lover’s heart。一首情歌?实际上这是一首有关爱情的歌曲,不是情歌。我写下了音乐旋律,但我必须要看一看 “寂静山谷”。Nicky和我去了“寂静山谷”,并且他决定在那里录制主嗓音(lead voice)。你如果你听的话,在主嗓音周围有着一层截然不同的氛围。 


KZ 

On may way home听上去象两个不同的音乐概念的混合。 


ENYA 

它作为一个整体写成的,但是合唱确实在编排中有变化。有时候如果合唱过于模糊,那么它不够生动。On my way home是有关当在回家路上时,所有那些你拥有的美妙回忆和快乐时光,而且我们努力把非常积极的情感穿越在合唱中。 


KZ 

在Once you had gold中,我听到了赞美诗中的和音渐进。我能想到的另外一位作曲家,他借用了赞美诗的和音渐进,他就是Elton John。你也从赞美诗中借用和音结构吗? 


ENYA 

我有同感。我从小在教堂唱赞美诗中长大。那些渐进是如此宏伟、简单而又非常美丽。你说的对。我知道那种影响因素存在于一些音乐旋律中。对我来说,它是平静的感觉。有时候音乐旋律变得复杂后美丽,而且向另一方向行进。但是当音乐非常简单时,也是如此美丽。 


附原文:


With only three releases, 1988's Watermark, 1991's Shepherd Moons, and her latest, The Memory of Trees, (not even counting the recently re-issued The Celts soundtrack), Enya has built an impressive Irish, trans-European, Asian and American following, ringing multi-platinum in 15 countries.


After the December release of The Memory of Trees, a holiday flurry of three million copies sold pushed her worldwide total past the 20 million mark.


For such a top seller, Enya keeps an extremely low profile, preferring to let the music take the bows. She rarely grants interviews, scheduling conversation time only when a new album is completed.


Yet each Enya release has become a Gavin tradition, with the magazine having done cover stories on her last two best-sellers. Enya's staff penciled us in during their recent publicity stop in Los Angeles. Following a snafu at the airport car rental counter, I arrived flustered, 30 minutes late for our interview. Enya, strikingly attractive and dressed in green velvet, waved off my apologies with a gentle smile and an Evian. Here is the lion's share of our conversation


Enya: Absolutely wonderful. It's still the three of us. Nobody else has gotten involved, and we're happy about that. It's been remarked that when people gain success, usually something will change. What's changed for us is now we have our own studio. Actually, we had a studio when we made Shepherd Moons, but it was much smaller, and we had to go to London to finish the album. I found it difficult. We would work together as three (in Ireland), very intimate and personal. Then we'd be in a studio in London with so many distractions. It took me a while to adapt. But this time we had our own studio outside of Dublin - designed purely for us - where we could begin the album and finish it there with no distractions. It's very peaceful and quiet. Upstairs we have this long room with two big arc windows at either end with a piano looking out over the Wicklow Mountains.


Keith Zimmerman: Yet there was a four-year gap between Shepherd Moons and the new album?


Enya: Starting in late 1991, I was still traveling quite a bit doing the promotion for Shepherd Moons. Then we got involved with the soundtrack of Far and Away with director Ron Howard. After a series of one-off trips to places like New York and Monte Carlo, we decided (in 1992) we were finished with the promotion of the album. I took a year off, then we spent two years making The Memory of Trees. Your songs spring a life of their own. Besides the CDs, they enter into a labyrinth of rights, film soundtracks, and advertising campaigns. I feel the music is bigger than I am.


Keith Zimmerman: Bigger than your image?


Enya: Some artists enjoy being bigger than the music. But it's something I choose not to concern myself with. To this day, people don't recognize me if I walk into a lobby of a hotel. People know the music. "That's Enya." It's good for me and it's good for the music. I'm able to take success at a very slow pace. I don't give a lot of interviews. No endless public appearances. I let the music take over.


Keith Zimmerman: You started your recording career by composing for films. What would it take for you to score a major film with all new music?


Enya: Scoring takes a long time. So far, all we've gotten involved with is just a main theme or a main song. When I was working on the new album, any offers that came in were declined. I cannot do both. So it's really a time factor. I still enjoy doing soundtracks, but scoring is difficult. Directors can be difficult to work with. You write a melody and they want ten seconds cut off. The only way I could score a film is to have a director that's really understanding to the music. But that's difficult because it is his film, and he loves to enhance the film with music. That's the way he sees it. He doesn't see the music as important as I do.


Nicky Ryan cited Phil Spector as a major influence in recording. Phil Spector and the Beach Boys. That's where he got the idea for the multi-vocal. He loves the big vocal sound, but he was curious to see what would evolve with one person doing all the vocals. He knew I had a great love for harmony. My influences are so different from Nicky's, but the golden rule in the studio is to try everything, no matter how strange the idea might sound. There's a certain stage where you're not sure what's working, and that's why you need time to leave it and come back to it later. Sometimes the arrangement may be wonderful and clever, but you have lost the emotion that begins with the melody. You have to go back regardless of what's been recorded. If there's a hesitation, it's gone.


Keith Zimmerman: That can be disappointing.


Enya: But it creates an element of excitement when you're working like that. I enjoy not knowing what the end result would be. I end up going into journeys with the melody without any idea where it's leading me. When Roma listens to the melody, she can hear what I'm experiencing as well. Then she can relate the lyrics to the emotion of the melody. Roma was the one who suggested the title, The Memory of Trees. That inspired me to write the title track about two weeks later. Usually, most of the melodies were first to the title and lyric. The Memory of Trees is based on Irish mythology and relates to the Druids who hold the trees as sacred.


Keith Zimmerman: The lyrics borrow from many environmental images. Does Roma travel a lot for inspiration?


Enya: She reads a lot and writes beautiful poetry. In a way, she travels within books.


Keith Zimmerman: You play all the instruments on the album, and there are no guest soloists or traditional songs used.


Enya: On this album I played light percussion and some strings. I played a little bit of cello and violin. I'm not a solo violinist, but I can play basic chords. It works well for layering sounds. The piano is still the main instrument. It's there in every song, even if it's not so apparent in the mix. Nicky loves to layer synthesizers and create a new sound that doesn't singularly exist. That big, ominous sound in 'Pax Deorum' is an example - it's a combination of blended sounds, not just one. It may sound like a live instrument, but it's a combination of strings and synthesizers. Sometimes there's a huge blend of voices doing string sections. People tend to think they're strings, but we're using the voices like an instrument.


Keith Zimmerman: That calls for flawless execution.


Enya: Even with a song like 'Anywhere Is,' there is no click track. Once I write a melody, it's free time. We found that a click track takes a huge chunk of emotion out of the song. Playing free time gives you so much feeling within the melody. Even though I'm going to layer my voice and play the instruments, I can still do that because I know the time. I can layer it perfectly without the click.

KZYour first single, 'Anywhere Is,' nearly didn't make the record. What happened?


Enya: It had started as a staccato, march feel in the initial melody. When we work in the studio, we don't have any idea which track is more commercial than the others. It's still very different to anything you hear on the radio. 'Orinoco Flow' is still different. We're unaware of potential singles, so after a year and a half we involved (Warner Bros. UK chairman) Rob Dickins. We felt we were coming to the end of the album and wanted to hear his opinion. We had to set a date because of worldwide release commitments. Rob immediately saw potential for 'Anywhere Is' as a single. I worked on the melody and we finished it.


Keith Zimmerman: 'Anywhere Is' was the final song you finished?


Enya: I was sitting with Roma and I said to her, "This is strange. 'Orinoco Flow' was the last song we finished on Watermark. 'Caribbean Blue' was the last song done on Shepherd Moons. There is this stage when things get up tempo in the studio, lyrically and melodically. After 'Anywhere Is,' things were coming to an end. It's happened that way three times."


Keith Zimmerman: You wait until the very end to come up with the lead hit single.


Enya: It's not like we have 30 tunes to pick from, and we'll choose number ten. I spend weeks and weeks in the studio just writing one melody.


Keith Zimmerman: Regarding 'Pax Deorum' and 'Athair Ar Neamh,' what's the correlation between using Latin and Gaelic in building a mood?


Enya: Roma and I knew I was not going to sing 'Athair Ar Neamh' in English. Although Gaelic is my first language, I don't try to impose it on the album. I like when it happens, as it did with that song. There's a song in Spanish called 'La Soñadora.' Roma and I listened back to it and thought it was a very different melody. We like to use the Latin on songs like 'Pax Deorum' because Latin has a very classic feel to it. Gaelic was very soft, and I knew English wouldn't be suited to it at all.


Keith Zimmerman: Is Roma fluent in Gaelic?


Enya: No, she was actually brought up in Belfast, Northern Ireland. After she's written the lyric in English, I sit with her and we adapt it into Gaelic, because you can lose emotion through direct translation. With 'La Soñadora,' Roma suggested we use Spanish. She told me there was a connection between Ireland and Spain in history, with the Spanish Armada and so forth. A lot of Spanish people settled in the West, hence a lot of dark-haired people in Ireland. Then Roma found a connection between Spain and Ireland in mythology. The first Druid, Amergin, came from Spain and the shores of Iberia. Upon landing on the coast of Ireland he recited a poem. She based the lyric of 'La Soñadora' translated 'The Dreamer,' on his poem. "I am autumn / I am winter / I am the echo."


Keith Zimmerman: You experimented with outside recording on 'Hope Has a Place.'


Enya: This was another case of the lyric coming first. Roma was visiting the north of Ireland on the way back home to Belfast. She had read about a beautiful place called the Silent Valley in the Mourne Mountains in County Down. She wrote the lyric while she was there. "Hope has a place in the lover's heart." A love song? It was actually a song about love, as opposed to a love song. There is hope when it doesn't work out, or someone has lost a loved one. I wrote the melody, but I had to see the Silent Valley. Nicky and I went to visit the Silent Valley, and he decided to record the lead voice there. If you listen, there's a different atmosphere around that lead vocal.


Keith Zimmerman: 'On My Way Home' sounds like a blend of two different musical ideas.


Enya: It was written as one piece, but the chorus did change from the arrangement. Sometimes if it's too subtle a chorus, it's not dramatic enough. 'On My Way Home' is about all those wonderful memories and fond moments that you have when you're on your way home. I know it's that way for me, and we're trying to get across that very positive feeling in the chorus.


Keith Zimmerman: On 'Once You Had Gold,' I hear chord progressions from hymns. I can think of another composer who borrows hymn chord progressions and that's Elton John. Do you also borrow chord structures from hymns?


Enya: I think so. I was brought up singing hymns from church. Those progressions are so grand, simple and very beautiful. You're right. I know that influence is in some of the melodies. It's a calming feeling for me. Sometimes melody is beautiful when it gets complex and takes off in another direction. But it's also so beautiful when it's very simple.

1996年01月25日

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恩雅与《树的回忆》

Enya & the Memory of Trees