来源:Sonics, The Music Magazine (Australia) July/August 1989

摘录:Tomás Román

翻译:


离开Clannad后的五年中,恩雅在都柏林Nicky的16音轨录音室中同他一道试验了不同的录音技巧、声音控制,不过绝大多数试验嗓音多音轨录制。 


说话声:

当时在Nicky的录音室里,《水印》被完全录制成样带形式(in demo form),因此去一伦敦录音室中将它制成母带时,他们不得不把整个录制过程再重复一遍。当时使用了两套Mitsubishis的32音轨录音设备,但是通过大量的反复录音,可能常常达到了200音轨。


Nicky: “在对所有这些演唱进行反复配音过程中,我们失去了样带上的许多音质,因此我们不得不重复录音。当然,我们可以用数字录音设备反复不断地进行重复,而且还可以保持音质,但是到了最后音乐的温情没有了。因此在第二次时,我们希望把模拟设备和数字设备结合起来用。”


Enya:“不过,用数字设备录制人声演唱是很棒的。”


如何摸索做200次嗓音重复配音?


Enya:“在这方面,我们已经工作了相当长时间了。我们花了很长一段时间来开发,因为最初进度不是很好。它仅仅是一种试验,而且一次次失误…并且,屡试屡败。”


你们如何知道何时停止录音?


Nicky: “有时候很困难,不过…仅当感觉上行了,就停止了。”


Enya:“有时候,我们可能录制了90遍人声演唱了,而且我们听出了效果不好,然后,我们必须勇敢地把这些都删除,即使这些工作已经花了数天时间。”


你们遇到过这样的问题吗:使用相位消除(phase cancellation)的多音轨录音或者有时使用MIDI层叠时,增加音轨会削弱原声吗?


Nicky: “会发生那样的事。通常,谐波变形会很可怕,而且无法去除,直到你开始拉掉一些音轨。有时候仅仅是一条音轨引发了这个问题。虽然通常我们不用相位消除。当我们需要一个真正的响亮声音时,我们会在录音监控室中录一些,然后通过麦克风从扬声器发出的噪音声中进行混音。那是个冒险过程,但那确实带给你一个不同的声音。”


Enya: “下一次我们会掌握。 重复录制母带是很烦人的,多数在音乐录制方面。在多嗓音录制方面,我喜欢对嗓音重复录音。”


你们如何开始?是否先录下钢琴曲或者别的?


Nicky: “有区别,但是我们一直在录制任何人声演唱前,先创作音乐。在Miss Clare Remembers这个例子中,这段曲子在钢琴上完成,而且钢琴弹奏听起来最好,我们就让它去了。所有这些多人声演唱部分仅仅在一些特定区域内制作,而且我们必须勇敢地说:“那段音乐仅需要用钢琴演奏即可,然后就可以了。”


Enya: “在On Your Shore中,我们试验了大量人声演唱,但这些演唱却不适合这首歌曲。因此我们不得不说,好吧,这段音乐需要一个主音演唱与一台合成器。就那样了。我们并不惧怕制作一段很复杂的音乐,接着制作非常简单的音乐。在这张专辑中最吸引人的特质之一是你不用试图把每个声音都做大,要允许一些细小的、脆弱的,甚至普通的声音单独处于宽广的空间中。”


Nicky: “对的…我们根本不用压缩器(compressors),不用压缩器会给剪辑唱片的人带来问题,但我认为那是他们的问题。我们必须在录制结束时音乐录音正确,在这种情况下,意思就是没有压缩器…但你真正听这张专辑或者你仅仅是随便听听而已(因为音乐中的力度变化是如此丰富)。”


乐器配置:


他们使用不同的键盘演奏器,不过主要的演奏器是Yamaha KX88master Yamaha DX7 Emulator 111 Oberheim Matrix synths 和Akai S900,但尤其是Roland's D50 和 Juno 60.


Enya: “Juno是我们的最爱之一。我们原先打算更换其中的一些另部件,以获得更好的声音,但我们没有找到更好的替代品,因此我们就放弃了。在作曲时,我不可能把所有这些声音都用在一首歌曲中。我通常从D50开始。不过,最经常做的是把片段的声音使用到最终的录音上。象用在Storms in Africa…在Juno 60上的琶音线就这首歌曲的基础。”


Nicky: “恩雅用这种演奏方式使得音乐有了动感。象用在River…有5种合成Midi'd,不过接着她在这些随机的琶音器上演奏和弦,音符在来回跳跃。这种方式从来就没有想到过。不知怎么地她做到了...


Enya: “我喜欢用琶音器,你会情不自禁去敲击它。而且那就是琶音器的优点,但是要掌握如何运用它的随意性。有时候,尽管我们得出了些东西,但是我们无法进行重复,象在Aldebaran(专辑Enya)。我们不得不把样带的录音录制到这张专辑上,因为我们实在无法把琶音器精确演奏地同第一次演奏时那样。


配乐:


你们凭着直觉知道哪个某个特殊片段该配哪种音乐吗?通过使用键盘器,你拥有了大量的乐音。


Nicky. “有时候会很有趣...象在On Your Shore中,那中情况不会发生,因为有了黑管独奏和歌曲名称,这首歌可能与Acker Bilk的歌曲Stranger On the Shore相比。把黑管录制在这首歌上的唯一原因是恩雅的独唱录在样带上,她一直是这样做的。以她演唱这首歌的方式,决定了只能用黑管。在Exile中,我们想用shakuhachi (一种日本长笛),但我们没有找到合适的演奏者,这样我们改换一位吉普赛人来吹奏长笛。通常情况下,恩雅的独唱是最好的,例如在The Celts中(首张专辑),不过这一次我们想试试一些不同的乐器。这样的事情一直在做---不断地实验。事实上,这样可以保持开放的心态。”


你从不买唱片,这是真的吗?是不是因为你想不受影响? 


Enya:“我喜欢的音乐是听上去强有力,通常是几首歌曲,而不是整张专辑。我确实知道许多音乐,尽管....”

Nicky. “同时我们想避免所谓的‘当前最受欢迎’,就是音乐时尚;特别现在,我们已经有了一首主打歌。如果我们现在走进录音室,担心着我们可能没有一首象Orinoco Flow(主打单曲)的歌曲,我们就会陷入困惑。接着,我们会失去我们拥有的原创性,因为没有公式可以套用。我们有自己的音乐方向,而且那就是我们如何制作出这两张专辑。


是什么赋予了你灵感?


Enya: “对我而言,优美的旋律非常重要。有些歌曲特别唤起了情感,象Na Laetha Geal M'Oige,这首歌是有关我童年的,非常个人化。不过象Storms in Africa和'Cursum Perficio的音乐理念非常开放,以致于我们当时无法确定歌曲如何结束。”


歌曲:


恩雅的音乐不能严格地被标注为“器乐演奏类”或“演唱类”,因为恩雅频繁地把自己的嗓音用作乐器,这使得这些音乐分类变得界限模糊。不过我问她如何区分,并且决定正是说起她的词作者:Roma Ryan。无论恩雅坚持Eno的理论:器乐类音乐就象把人形从风景中拿出来,还是恩雅坚持David Sylvian的信念:人声的演唱更多地在听者的想象中起作用,


她回答道:“有时候另一种方法能操作,象在On Your Shore中那样。那首歌起初是器乐作品,不过我们试着写了歌词,并且行得通。不过,Watermark,这显然是器乐作品。钢琴表现得如此之好,而合成音乐却很难做到那样,合成音乐需要更多的嗓音。”


Nicky: “我认为Sylvian所说的话部分正确。我们已经发现,当人们无法知道恩雅在唱些什么(盖尔语写的歌词)时,他们就借此把演唱当成器乐演奏欣赏。不过另人惊讶的是他们常常能正确领会这些歌曲的含义,因为他们领会了演唱中歌词传递出的感情。有时候,如果人们从一段音乐中领会了强烈的感情时,最好就让歌曲那个样。不要去解释歌词,因为他们可能会感到失望! 我们花许多时间大量地混合人声,这就成了配乐的一部分了。有时候歌词能产生让音乐前进的途径。象Cursum Perficio (意思是‘你的旅程在这儿结束’) 来源于我们看过的一部有关玛丽莲.梦露的记录片。那些字写在了梦露最后居住过房子的台阶上的。有时候恩雅会改编(不是翻译)Roma的歌词,变成盖尔语;所以Roman会记住用那样的形式填词。”


你能现场表演这些音乐吗?


Enya: “会的,但是我们将制作另外一张专辑,所以我们会有更多的音乐素材。”


你需要大型合唱团吗?


“因为视觉原因,不需要很大的合唱团,而且音乐会根据舞台演出而做改编!”


对突如其来的受欢迎,你感到惊喜吗?


Enya: “是的,但是我依旧不把我的音乐视作流行音乐。而且不会在任何阶段去关心排行榜 – 如果有单曲(在下一张专辑中),那会很好。如果没有,对我们来说也会不错。


附原文:


For five years after leaving Clannad, Enya and Nicky have been experimenting in Nicky's 16-track studio in Dublin with various recording techniques, sound manipulations but mostly with voice-multitracking.


THE VOICE:

Watermark was recorded completely in demo form in Nicky's studio, so when they went into a London studio to master it, the entire performance had to be repeated. They were using two 32-track Mitsubishis but would often use up to 200 tracks with a lot of bouncing.


Nicky: "Doing all these vocals overdubs we'd lost a lot of quality on the demos so we had to re-record. Of course, we could bounce endlessly with digital and keep the quality but we did lose warmth in the bottom end. So, next time, we hope to use a combination of analogue and digital."

Enya: "But digital is great for recording vocals."


How does it feel to do 200 voice overdubs?


"We've been working in this way for so long. It took a long time to develop because in the beginning it didn't work very well. It's just a matter of trial and error and... persisting."


How do you know when to stop?


Nicky: "It's difficult sometimes but... just when it feels right."

Enya: "Sometimes we might have recorded 90 vocal takes and we can hear that it's not working and so we have to be very brave and wipe them, even if it's taken days of work."


Do you get the problem with multi-tracking of phase cancellation or as Midi layers sometimes, adding more can weaken the original sound?


Nicky: "Yes, that can happen. Usually you get harmonic distortion which is horrendous and you can't get a rd of it until you start pulling down the parts. Sometimes it's just one track causing the problem. We don't usually get phase cancellation though. When we want a really big sound we'll record some in the monitor room and mix in the feedback from the speakers through the microphone. That's a dicey procedure, but it does gives you a different sound."

Enya: "Next time we'll master as we go. Having to repeat the demo is awful, mostly for the music. With the multi-voice recording, I love re-recording the voices."


How do you start? Do you put down a piano guide or what?


Nicky: "It varies, but we always build up the music before we do any vocals. In the case of Miss Clare Remembers, which was written on piano and that is how it sounded best, we left it alone. All this multi-vocal stuff only works in certain areas and we have to be brave enough to say, 'that piece of music only need piano', and leave it alone."

Enya: "With On Your Shore, we did loads of vocal experiments but they just didn't suit with the track. So we had to say, 'well this piece of music wants to be one lead vocal with a synthesiser'. That's it. We're not afraid to have a very complicated piece and then something really simple. One of the album's most attractive qualities is that you don't try to make every sound huge, you allow some small, frail, even ordinary sounds to stand alone in big spaces."

Nicky:"That's right... well, we didn't use compressors at all which makes it a bit of a problem for the person cutting the record, but I think has to be their problem. We have to make the music sound right at the recording end of it and in this case that meant, no compressors. Almost every album these days is made with huge compression... but you really have to listen to this album or it just drifts by you (because the dynamics are so broad)."


THE SET UP:

They use a variety of keyboards but the mainstays are a Yamaha KX88master Yamaha DX7 Emulator 111 Oberheim Matrix synths and Akai S900 but particularly Roland's D50 and Juno 60.


Enya: "The Juno is one of our favorites. We had intended to replace its parts with better sounds but we couldn't find better substitutes so we left them in. It's not always possible to have all the sounds I want for a song at the time of composing .I'd usually start with the D50. But most often, sounds suggest parts and the ones I use then are usually used on the final recording. Like on Storms in Africa... that arpeggiated line on the Juno 60 was the basis of the piece."

Nicky: "Enya has this way of playing that makes a sound move. Like on River...there are five synths Midi'd but then she plays chords over these random arpeggiators with notes popping in and out where you don't expect them. Somehow she makes that work..."

Enya: "I like using the arpeggiator in that s well, you couldn't put a click to it. And that's the beauty of it, but it's a matter of knowing how to use that randomness. Sometimes though we come up with things we can't repeat like on Aldebaran (from the Enya album). We had to put the demo track on that album because we just couldn't get the arpeggiator to behave exactly as it did the first time."


THE SOUND:

Do you know instinctively which is the right sound for a particular part? With the keyboards you're using you have an enormous pallate . thousands of sounds.


Nicky. "It's very interesting sometimes... like with 'On Your Shore,' it never occurred to us that because of the clarinet solo and the title it would be compared with Acker Bilk's 'Stranger On The Shore.' The only reason clarinet was put on that track was because Enya, as she always does, sang the solo on the demo. The way she sang it, had to be clarinet. "On 'Exile' we wanted to use shakuhachi (the Japanese flute) but we couldn't find a good player, so we got a gypsy guy to play the flute. Often the solo is best with Enya' s voice which was the case with 'The Celts' (first album), but this time we wanted to try some different instruments. "This kind of thing goes on all the time - experimenting. It's a case of keeping an open mind."


Is it true that you've never bought an album in your life? Is that because you want to avoid influences?


Enya: "It' s just the music I like, which feels strong, is in bits and pieces, not usually a whole album. I do know a lot of music though...."

Nicky. "Also we want to avoid the 'flavor of the month,' you know, fashions in music; especially now we've had a hit. If we went into the studio now worrying that we mightn't have a song like 'Orinoco Flow' (hit single) we' d be in trouble. Then we' d lose any kind of originality that we have, because there is no formula. We have our own direction and that's how we've approached both albums."


What inspires you?


Enya: "Melody is very important to me. Some tracks are extremely emotional like 'Na Laetha Geal M'Oige' which is about my childhood. It was very personal. But tracks like 'Storms in Africa' and 'Cursum Perficio' were so open to ideas we weren't sure how they would end up."


THE SONG:

Enya's music can't be strictly labeled 'instrumental' or 'song' because she uses her voice so much as an instrument that these categories blur. But I ask her how she differentiates and decides it's time to call up her lyricist, Roma Ryan, and add words to the picture. And whether she adheres to Eno 's theory that instrumental music is like "taking the figure out of the landscape," or David Sylvian's belief that vocal music works more on the listener's imagination


She replies : "Sometimes it can work the other way like with 'On Your Shore.' That was originally an instrumental but we tried lyrics with it and it worked. But with say, 'Watermark,' that was obviously an instrumental. The piano stands so well alone whereas it's hard for synths to do that, they need the voice more."


Nicky: "I think what Sylvian said is true in part. We've found that when people don't know what Enya is singing (the Gaelic lyrics) they lend to listen to it as an instrumental. But it's amazing how often they get the meaning of the song right, because they get the feeling of the words from the vocal. Sometimes it is best, if people get a strong feeling from a piece of music, to leave it that way. Don't go explaining it because they might be disappointed! "A lot of the time we blend the vocal in so much that it just becomes part of the sound. And sometimes words can suggest the way a piece of music will go. Like 'Cursum Perficio' (meaning, your journey ends here) came from a documentary we were watching about Marilyn Monroe. Those words were written on the step of her last house. "Then sometimes Enya will adapt (not translate) Roma' s lyrics to Gaelic; so Roma will write them with that in mind."


Can you play this music live?


Enya: "Yes, but we'll do another album first so we have more material."


You'll need a large choir?


"It doesn't need to be so large because of the visual side, and the music will have to be adapted for stage though!"


Are you surprised by your sudden popularity?


Enya: "Yes, but I still wouldn't consider my music as pop. And I don't want to be concerned about the charts at any stage - if there's a single (on the next album), that's fine. If there's not, well that's all right with us.

2016年12月29日

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